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On the relation of movement-related potentials to the go/no-go effect on P3
According to Simson et al. [Simson, R., Vaughan, H.G., Jr., Ritter, W., 1977. The scalp topography of potentials in auditory and visual go/nogo tasks. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 43, 864-875], the difference between no-go P3 and go-P3 (the go/no-go effect) is due to overlap of P3 onto the return of the preceding contingent negative variation (CNV) in no-go trials and onto the continuing CNV in go trials. Similarly, according to Kok [Kok, A., 1986. Effects of degradation of visual stimuli on components of the event-related potential (ERP) in go/nogo reaction tasks. Biological Psychology 23, 21-38], the go/no-go effect is due to movement-related negative potentials, in particular contralateral negativity, adding with P3 in go trials. To investigate these notions, we studied how CNV, go-P3 and no-go P3 are lateralized at fronto-central sites when the side of the response varies across trials, comparing these effects between hand movements and eye movements and delineating them more precisely for hand movements with multichannel recordings. The go/no-go effect was larger and contralaterally lateralized with hand movements than with eye movements. Dipole analysis dissected its components into a large contribution of the medial cingulate gyrus, into activity of motor areas contralateral to the cued hand and a left-frontal source. Motor-related portions of the effect seemed to build upon and extend motor-related components included in CNV. Results provide support for the notion that the go/no-go effect is related to movement-related potentials. We suggest that go-P3 and no-go P3 are characterized by addition and reduction of motor-related activation to the core P3.